Monday, July 11, 2005


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Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One's Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments

quote มาให้ดูบางส่วนแล้วกัน
(เป็นหนูทดลองให้ bact เขาหน่อย
ว่า การ quote ถือเป็นการตัวแทนของ
People tend to hold overly favorable views of their abilities in many social and intellectual domains.
Across 4 studies, the authors found that participants scoring in the bottom quartile on tests of humor, grammar, and logic grossly overestimated their test performance and ability. Although their test scores put them in the 12th percentile, they estimated themselves to be in the 62nd.

"above-average effect,"
the tendency of the average person to believe he or she is above average.
For example, high school students tend to see themselves as having more ability in leadership, getting along with others, and written expression than their peers
, business managers view themselves as more able than the typical manager
, and football players see themselves as more savvy in "football sense" than their teammates

"ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge"
Charles Darwin

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